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 The translated version of "A Modern History of Taekwondo"

written by KANG Won Sik and LEE Kyong Myong, in the Korean language.

Chapter 1: The Development of the Kwans

Chapter 1, Section 1: Chung Do Kwan

Right after the independence of Korea, the Chung Do Kwan, one of the five key Dojangs, was founded first. It symbolized Chung Do Kwan's name, Bluewaves, meaning a youngster's spirit and vitality. Chung Do Kwan's founder, LEE Won Kuk, moved to Japan when he was 19 years.old in 1926. While in Japan, he first attended middle and high school, and.then entered the law school of Chuo University. Then he entered Japan's Karate headquarters, the Song Do Kwan (Shotokan). He received Karate instruction from Karate's father, Funakoshi Sensei. There, he learned Karate with Song Moo Kwan's founder, RO Byung Jick. He moved back to Japan and taught Tang Soo Do in the Yong Shin school hall in Suh Dae Moon Gu's Ochun Dong, Seoul because he had a good relationship with Japan's Chosun Governor General Abe in 1944. This led to the rumor that he was pro-Japanese. Later, Oh Do Kwan's founder, CHOI Hong Hi said "After independence, LEE Kwan Jang was charged with acts of pro-Japanese and stood in a special civil trial." LEE Won Kuk was a precise person. He had a strong body of a martial artist and glaringly sharp eyes. His expression was very strict. Right after the independence day, he seemed to offset his pro-Japanese deeds by developing a good relationship with people of the National Police Headquarters. He led the efforts to get rid of Seoul gangsters. The Chung Do Kwan was once called the National Police Headquarters dojang. After the Korean War, the Chung Do Kwan members were less than 200. GM LEE Won Kuk visited the school twice and watched the lessons. The primary instructors were YOO Ung Jun and SON Duk Sung, with promotion tests given every six months. Graduates of the Chung Do Kwan were: 1) YOO Ung Jun; 2) SON Duk Sung; 3) UHM Woon Kyu; 4) HYUN Jong Myun; 5) MIN Woon Sik; 6) HAN In Sook; 7) JUNG Young Taek; 8) KANG Suh Chong; 9) BAEK Joon Ki; 10) NAM Tae Hi; 11) KO Jae Chun; 12) KWAK Kuen Sik; 13) KIM Suk Kyu; 14) HAN Cha Kyo; 15) JO Sung Il; 16) LEE Sa Man; 17) RHEE Jhoon Goo (Jhoon Rhee); and 18) KIM Bong Sik. From Inchon, which became the center of the Chung Do Kwan's annex Kwans, more schools were opened. They were: 1) KANG Suh Chong's Kuk Mu Kwan; 2) LEE Yong Woo's Jung Do Kwan in Suh Dae Moon Ku; 3) KO Jae Chun's Chung Ryong Kwan in Kwang Ju; and 4) CHOI Hong Hi's Oh Do Kwan. The Oh Do Kwan especially had active Chung Do Kwan members who were in the military after the Korean War. The Chung Do Kwan's first Kwan Jang was LEE Won Kuk; the second was SON Duk Sung; and the third was UHM Woon Kyu. When SON Duk Sung because the Kwan Jang of the Chung Do Kwan, UHM Woon Kyu, HYUN Jong Myun, and NAM Tae Hi had conflicts with regard to the issue of who should receive the nomination from LEE Won Kuk and become the next Kwan Jang.

Chapter 1, Section 2: Choson Yun Moo Kwan Kong Soo Do Bu (Jidokwan)

The Jidokwan was founded by an elite member, CHUN Sang Sup, on May 3, 1946 as the Choson Yun Moo Kwan Kong Soo Do Bu. When he was a teenager, he learned Judo and learned Karate while studying abroad in Japan. After the Independence Day, he opened the Choson Yun Moo Kwan Kong Soo Do Bu at the former Judo school, Choson Yun Moo Kwan, where he taught Judo and Karate. He began to recruit new members. He had a slender figure and was not particular, but was an intellect and always wore suits. However, during the Korean War, he vanished, the Choson Yun Moo Kwan Kong Soo Do Bu was abolished and it was renamed Jidokwan. After Independence Day, the Choson Yun Moo Kwan taught no guep (mu guep) to 8th guep in high, middle and low classes. The student's Kwan number was based on guep promotion, and not only the day of the first registration as a student. The Choson Yun Moo Kwan was started in Seoul, but the major development and structural growth was spread from Chun Ju, Cholla Buk Do as a center. Then, CHUN Il Sup opened another school in Kunsan, Cholla Buk Do in May 1947, and spread his school's reputation from Jun Joo to Kunsan, I Ri, Nam Won, Jung Uep and more. During the Korean War, the Choson Yun Moo Kwan's name was changed to Jidokwan. After CHUN Sang Sup was kidnapped to North Korea, the Jidokwan (Wisdom Way School) was opened and ran by YOON Kwe Byung and LEE Chong Woo until 1967. However, through the process of unification with the Korea Tae Soo Do Association, the Jidokwan had conflicts between YOON Kwe Byung and LEE Chong Woo. Led by LEE Chong Woo (Jidokwan), LEE Nam Suk (Chang Moo Kwan), UHM Woon Kyu (Chung Do Kwan), HYUN Jong Myun (Chung Do Kwan/Oh Do Kwan) and others planned to unify, but YOON Kwe Byung and HWANG Kee (Moo Duk Kwan) declined and persisted on their self testing committee. Jidokwan graduates were 1) BAE Young Ki; 2) LEE Chong Woo; 3) KIM Bok Nam; 4) PARK Hyun Jung; 5) LEE Soo Jin; 6) JUNG Jin Young; 7) LEE Kyo Yoon; 8) LEE Byung Ro; 9) HONG Chang Jin; 10) PARK Young Kuen and others. Jidokwan's distinguished difference from other schools was mainly based on Kyorugi (sparring). When Taekwondo tournaments became active from the beginning of the 1960's to the 1970's, Jidokwan distinguished itself. The major representatives were LEE Seung Wan, CHO Jum Sun, HWANG Dae Jin, CHOI Young Ryul and more. Jidokwan's representing annex was the Han Moo Kwan. But, LEE Kyo Yoon said the Han Moo Kwan root is not Jidokwan, but rather the Choson Yun Moo Kwan. This shows the debate of the origins of the school. Jidokwan's first Kwan Jang was CHUN Sang Sup; the second Kwan Jang was YOON Kwe Byung and the third LEE Chong Woo.

Chapter 1, Section 3: Moo Duk Kwan

After Independence Day, the Moo Duk Kwan started as the "Transportation by Rail Committee Tang Soo Do Bu" at the railroad system at Yong San Station, Seoul. The Department of Transportation allowed the Tang Soo Do Dojang as a traffic service, but the exact date is unknown. We only know that it was founded after 1946. HWANG Kee claimed that he learned Kuk Sool when he worked for the Southern Manchuria Railroad in 1935, but other Taekwondo seniors denied this claim saying that there was no evidence. Moo Duk Kwan was nearby the Yong San Railroad station, so it was called the "Railroad Dojang". The first Moo Duk Kwan dan holder was KIM Woon Chang. Others were: 1) HONG Chong Soo; 2) CHOI Hui Suk; 3) YOO Kwa Young; 4) NAM Sam Hyun; 5) KIM In Suk; 6) LEE Bok Sung; 7) HWANG Jin Tae; 8) WON Yong Bup; 9) CHUNG Chang Young; 10) LEE Kang Ik, and others who were all railroad personnel. The Moo Duk Kwan used the trains to open a school in different railroad station's storage rooms and spread its power. When someone said Moo Duk Kwan, one would think about the railroad. When the Moo Duk Kwan had rank testings, the Chung Do Kwan's LEE Won Kuk and Song Moo Kwan's RO Byung Jick visited and built a good friendship, but regarding dan certificates and promotions, they had disagreements with HWANG Kee. In 1955, the Moo Duk Kwan Central Gymnasium was opened near Seoul Station in Joong Gu's Dong Ja Dong, Seoul. In the same year, 9 more annex schools were opened and it held the friendly China-Korea International Tang Soo Do Championships. But in 1960, the Moo Duk Kwan had a big change. The Moo Duk Kwan was no longer 1953's Korea Tang Soo Do Association, and it was changed to a Korean traditional name, the Korea Soo Bahk Do Association. Later the Moo Duk Kwan had big headaches because of HWANG Kee's persistence in not unifying with the KTA. Finally, in March 1965, KIM Young Taek and HONG Chong Soo led the Moo Duk Kwan unification with the KTA without HWANG Kee. After that incident, LEE Kang Ik became the next Kwan Jang, but soon after resigned with HONG Chong Soo becoming the third Kwan Jang. After, OH Se Joon became Kwan Jang. The Moo Duk Kwan's customs were the strongest among the first five big Kwans.

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